What Happens If You Default On A Business Loan[yoast-breadcrumb]
What Happens If You Default on a Business Loan?
Defaulting on a business loan can spur a domino effect of consequences for your company. Missed payments and failure to repay on time constitute default per your loan agreement. Once in default, the lender has broad legal rights to recover what they’re owed – and this can get ugly fast. Understanding exactly what happens upon default helps you avoid reaching that stage or be prepared if you do.
The Lender Sends Demand Notices
The first sign of trouble is receiving written notice that you’ve defaulted on the loan. These demand letters state that immediate payment is required to avoid further action. If the default is solely missed payments, the letter may just request the past due amount. More serious infractions could demand full repayment of the entire loan balance.
Don’t ignore these notices. Contact the lender right away to discuss options like loan modifications, payment plans, or refinancing to get back in good standing. Their goal is getting repaid at this stage – not punishing your business. But they won’t wait forever.
Late Fees and Interest Rates Increase
Your original loan agreement likely states that default triggers financial penalties. Common examples include:
- Late payment fees, such as 5% of the missed installment.
- Raising the interest rate by several percentage points.
- Charging default interest on the full loan principal.
These increases make the loan more expensive in hopes of pressuring you to pay. But they still pale in comparison to what comes next if default continues unresolved.
The Loan Gets Called Due
If you remain in default despite notices and financial penalties, the ultimate consequence is having the full loan balance accelerated or “called due”. This makes the entire remaining principal, interest, and all fees immediately owed in full.
For example, if you borrowed $100,000 with three years left, default could condense that into a lump sum due instantly. This immediate obligation is often impossible for small businesses to satisfy.
Legal Action Gets Taken
With your balance accelerated but unpaid, expect the lender’s attorneys to initiate legal action to recover their money. This may involve:
- Filing a civil lawsuit against your business seeking a court judgment.
- Initiating foreclosure against any collateral assets used to secure the loan.
- Obtaining court orders to garnish funds from your bank accounts or directly from customers.
- Having the sheriff’s department seize and auction off your pledged assets.
- Petitioning to push your business into involuntary bankruptcy.
Essentially, the lender deploys its legal arsenal to be made financially whole again by any means necessary. The business suffers the consequences.
Your Credit Takes a Major Hit
Even if you eventually satisfy the lender through legal proceedings, your business credit rating still takes a big hit. The lender will report the default to credit bureaus like Equifax and Experian.
This damages your credit score and leaves a serious negative mark that makes securing financing difficult in the future. Rebuilding credit after a loan default takes years of good payment behavior.
Future Financing Options Vanish
In additional to harming your credit, defaulting renders conventional lenders unwilling to work with your business again. Banks avoid lending more money to those with a high risk of repeating default.
You may need to turn to alternative lending sources like online lenders, merchant cash advances, or factoring. But their rates and terms are much less favorable.
Penalties Extend to Management
For small businesses, owners’ personal finances often back the company’s loans through guarantees or collateral pledges. So individual consequences like damaged personal credit, garnished wages, seized homes, and bankruptcy judgments can extend to the owner.
Borrowing again becomes difficult. Even raising capital from investors gets tougher when your credit and financial reputation are damaged.
You Can’t Get Government Contracts or Loans
Federal agencies like the SBA or GSA bar those in default on any government-backed debts from securing future contracts, loans, or assistance. This includes all SBA financing programs.
Certain business licenses could also be jeopardized by loan defaults if regulators consider it evidence of financial irresponsibility.
Partnerships and Customers May Abandon You
Financial troubles leading to or resulting from the default may motivate business partners to cut ties. They want to distance themselves from the instability and risk.
Customers may also take their business elsewhere due to doubts about your viability. Your products and services carry more risk if your company faces legal and financial uncertainties.
Bankruptcy Often Follows
Between acceleration of the loan balance, legal judgments, and partners/customers fleeing, default often deals a fatal blow to small businesses. Under this financial distress, many have no choice but to ultimately seek Chapter 7 or Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
This provides relief from debts and lawsuits but at the cost of severe damage to the business’ future prospects plus owners’ personal finances. Bankruptcy records persist for 10 years.
How to Avoid Default Consequences
Obviously you’ll want to prevent experiencing these dire scenarios. Here are proactive steps to maintain loan compliance:
- Maintain proper financial records to detect cash flow problems early.
- Keep lenders informed if you anticipate missing payments.
- Request modified terms if necessary to stay current on installments.
- If default occurs, negotiate alternative payment arrangements.
- Seek credit counseling or financial advice before problems multiply.
With diligence and communication, most businesses can sidestep defaulting on their loans. But if you do default, be prepared for an onslaught of legal and financial consequences. Take prompt action to mitigate the damage. Don’t bury your head in the sand and hope the issue disappears. That only ensures the outcomes will be far worse.
- Default triggers notices, fees, raised rates, and loan acceleration
- Legal action, credit damage, lack of financing, and bankruptcy follow
- Both the business and personally face severe penalties
- Avoid by monitoring cash flow and negotiating with lenders
- If defaulted, act quickly to minimize harm
Handle loans responsibly, but know recovery options exist if you ever stumble. With proactive management, the risks of loan default can be contained.
- SBA loan default recovery guide: https://www.sba.gov/partners/lenders/7a-loan-program/loan-purchases-recoveries
- Business credit scoring explained: https://www.nav.com/business-credit-scores/
- Finding alternative business financing: https://www.fundera.com/business-loans
- Overcoming loan default as an entrepreneur: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/299198
- Repairing credit after loan default: https://wallethub.com/edu/rebuild-credit/14477
Don’t fear the worst if facing default. Knowledge of the consequences empowers you to handle them.